Goldenrod is a perennial plant characterized by its tall, slender stems and bright yellow, clustered flowers that bloom in late summer and fall.
Goldenrod (Solidago spp.) is often confused with ragweed, getting blamed for fall’s seasonal hay fever. Despite being part of the same family, these two plants look nothing alike, with goldenrod having a very distinctive appearance.
Most goldenrod species are identifiable by their bright yellow flowers, made up of clusters of individual tiny flowers. Their leaves alternate on the stem, creating imperfect pairs from top to bottom, and are lance-shaped.
This article will discuss the appearance of goldenrod, noting the unique characteristics that can help you identify it among other wildflowers. It will also explain the various benefits of the plant and describe the look-alikes that are most often confused for goldenrod.
Understanding how to identify goldenrod plants, including goldenrod flowers and goldenrod leaves, is essential if you want to be able to understand the goldenrod plant just a little bit better.
Let’s dive in!
Is Goldenrod the Same as Ragweed?
Goldenrod has over 75 species, while ragweed has 20 native to the United States. Their blooming periods coincide, adding to the confusion between the two species. They also both grow in ditches along the road and open fields.
To attract pollinating insects, goldenrod flowers produce nectar. Their large, heavy pollen grains attach to the bodies of the insects, allowing for distribution.
On the other hand, ragweed does not produce nectar at all. Because of this, they require the wind to transport all their lightweight pollen that can travel for miles. A billion pollen grains can come from one ragweed plant.
How Can You Tell Goldenrod?
Goldenrod is a member of the sunflower family. They produce a last-minute bloom in the fall that generally coincides with allergy season, which is why they are most often confused with ragweed despite not being the source of any allergies themselves.
However, goldenrod has several distinct characteristics that make them easy to identify. We’re going to look at these distinctive traits so that you can quickly identify this flower and avoid confusing it with ragweed.
It’s important to know the difference between goldenrod and ragweed. Here’s how to tell goldenrod apart from other similar plants:
Bright Yellow Flowers
The goldenrod flower is almost always bright yellow, regardless of the species. However, there are a few exceptions to this rule, including silverrod, which has white flowers.
These showy goldenrod flowers are what attract bees and various other pollinators to the blooms, allowing for the transport of goldenrod pollen between goldenrod flowers. Because they are insect-pollinated, they do not use wind pollination nearly as much as other flowers.
The leaves on the goldenrod alternate on the stem. This means that as the leaves develop, they do not grow in pairs opposite one another on the plant’s stem. Instead, they grow in an alternating pattern down the stem for an uneven line of leaves.
Goldenrod is hardy in zones 2a to 8b. It grows well in nearly any kind of soil, including poor quality. It is a very low-maintenance plant, simply requiring a sunny spot and a bit of moist soil.
This plant is native to North America, so it should not be considered invasive; however, some species are highly aggressive growers. They can quickly overtake an entire garden, growing into the surrounding areas. If you plan to grow goldenrod in the garden, be sure to have a dedicated place for it to prevent it from sprawling.
They are widespread in ditches, fields, orchards, forests, and even compost piles throughout late summer and well into the fall. Goldenrod will easily cover any of these areas, creating a sea of bright yellow.
Large Clusters of Flowers
The flowers of the goldenrod are not made up of single buds and are instead clusters of much smaller flowers. They are part of the sunflower family, which produces flowers made up of inflorescences.
What we refer to as petals are nothing of the sort but are sterile flowers modified to look like petals to attract pollinators. Additionally, the middle disc is the reproductive flowers despite looking nothing like flowers.
For goldenrod, it’s a little different as they do not feature the middle disc as a sunflower or daisy does. The flowers also grow out in a plume of clusters. The plants grow from 2 to 16 inches tall and almost as broad.
Each plant has numerous horizontal branches. You will find many densely packed golden flowers on the top sides of these branches. The flower heads measure roughly ⅛ inch wide and long.
Emanating from their green, although sometimes purple-tinged, stems, you will find green, undivided leaves. They are generally 10 cm long and 2 cm wide. They are tapered at the point and narrowed at the base like a lance, featuring a lack of a leaf stem.
The edges feature what can be called small teeth. Starting near the base of the leaf, three veins run parallel down the length of each leaf. The leaves are hair on the underside and rough on the upper side.
Is Goldenrod Poisonous to Humans?
Goldenrod is not poisonous to humans. Specific individuals may be allergic to the plant or get a rash from skin contact, but it is not toxic. It is used for many different medicinal purposes, herbal supplements, and teas.
It is considered a safe plant in most instances. Its main properties are diuretic and astringent, meaning anyone on diuretic medication or with certain medical conditions should avoid ingesting this plant.
Because its principal components are tannins, saponins, and flavonoids, human poisoning with goldenrod is difficult. However, the effects of goldenrod use during pregnancy and lactation are unknown, and it is recommended to be avoided in these circumstances.
What is the Plant Goldenrod Good For?
Goldenrod is not just a pretty plant. It offers many benefits on top of being mostly allergen-free. Harvesting this plant will help reap these benefits and preserve it for use throughout the year.
From a beneficial goldenrod tea to medicinal properties, the health benefits of the goldenrod plant are off the chart. Additionally, it can be a great attraction in a wildflower garden.
Goldenrod is often used to make tea. While the FDA does not support the evidence, it is believed that drinking this tea will help flush out any kidney stones or help alleviate bladder infections.
This plant has diuretic properties, so anyone with a medical condition or already on a diuretic should consult their physician before consuming it.
How To Harvest Goldenrod
To harvest goldenrod, begin on a dry day with no dew on the plants. You’ll need scissors or plant snips because the stems will be too hard to break by hand alone. You will cut off the top ⅓ to ½ of the plant, which is the flowering tops.
It would be best if you did not pull the plants out by their roots. They are perennials, and doing this will prevent them from returning next year.
Once you have cut off the flowering tops, pull apart the individual stems and place them separately on paper towels. They will need to remain like this for several days to dry thoroughly.
Alternatively, you can use a dehydrator. Set it to 90 degrees Fahrenheit, which is generally the herb setting. Routinely check on it following the first hour of drying until you achieve the perfect state.
Store the dried herbs in a brown paper bag, mason jar, or container. Keep the container out of direct sunlight and away from heat. The general shelf life for dried plants is nine months to one year.
If you notice the color has started to fade, it is time to discard them. This is an indication of faded potency.
There are more than 100 species of goldenrod native to North America. Because of this, they are well adapted to several of the hardiness zones and thrive as perennials. They require little maintenance and can even survive in poor soil conditions.
When adding goldenrod to your garden, they will easily grow as they are used to the climate and growing conditions of the region. It will make caring for them relatively simple. However, you will have to watch for too much aggressive growth.
Goldenrod is considered a medicinal plant. All of it can be used for healing purposes, including the roots. However, the top sections are generally harvested and used in supplements, teas, and other remedies.
Despite being confused for ragweed, goldenrod is used in the treatment of allergies, hay fever, colds, and flu. Additionally, it is believed to help with lowering high cholesterol and clearing kidney stones.
It has also been indicated for the treatment of gout, arthritis, minor wounds, and eczema. It can be taken internally or applied externally.
You can get many beneficial compounds from goldenrod, including saponins and flavonoid antioxidants. Saponins can help inhibit the growth of harmful yeast, including that which causes vaginal yeast infections.
In various studies, they have also been shown to demonstrate anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer properties. Quercetin and kaempferol, two flavonoid antioxidants, help protect the body from free radical exposure. These antioxidants are also anti-inflammatory.
Goldenrod has a higher antioxidant activity level than green tea and Vitamin C.
Part of a Wildflower Garden
Goldenrod makes the perfect addition to a wildflower garden. This type of use is one of the primary options for this plant. Additionally, it’s a great way to attract butterflies to your garden, adding another level of charm and beauty.
A tincture is a concentrated form of an herb that is easy to take. Goldenrod can easily be made into a tincture dosed out in just a few drops. The dose will need to be adjusted based on body weight and metabolism.
In addition to internal use, goldenrod can be used topically. If you make a salve, it can be applied to areas suffering from mild aches and pains.
Its astringent properties can also be used as a healing agent. The goldenrod salve can be applied to minor scratches, scrapes, and chapped lips.
Goldenrod Look Alikes
Goldenrod has many look-alikes, and some are not so friendly. When picking wildflowers, it is essential to know what you are reaching for, so let’s look at a couple of the plants that are often confused for goldenrod.
Yellow crownbeard, also known as stickweed, also features bright yellow blooms. However, this is where the similarities stop. These blooms grow on the top of the plant and do not make clusters or plumes.
The leaves of the yellow crownbeard are also alternating but are ovate. They feature widely spaced small teeth. Their upper surface is sometimes rough to the touch, with moderate to dense amounts of hair, while the bottom usually has a felt-like quality.
Yellow crownbeard grows in very similar locations to goldenrod. However, it is also known to increase in rocky areas.
Despite looking more like a daisy than a goldenrod, this plant still makes the look-alike list. It is also toxic, so you must stay far away from this one.
It is typically a biennial, meaning it lives for two years. This plant will generally flower during its second year. It grows in similar areas to goldenrod, making it a potential problem for those raising livestock.
Ragwort generally does not strike gardens; however, it can be hard on paddocks and pastures. If it does get into these areas, the livestock is at risk for poisoning. You can treat it with an herbicide, which will also deter your livestock from wanting to graze.
As long as it is not near any of your animals, it can make a cheerful addition to your property. It is a natural attractant for insects as it is a raw food source.
Goldenrod is a beautiful plant that gets a bad reputation because of its confusion with ragweed. Despite growing simultaneously and having similar physical characteristics, goldenrod does not disperse much airborne goldenrod pollen, resulting in fewer allergies.
It has bright yellow flowers and lance-shaped leaves. Its blooms are a composite of many smaller flowers combined to make a whole. The bottom of its leaves is hairy, while the tops have a rougher texture.
This plant has many uses, including medicinal; however, none are backed by the FDA, and you should consult your doctor before using it. Goldenrod is believed to help flush out kidney stones, lower high cholesterol, and alleviate bladder infections.
See more: What Does Ragweed Look Like?
*image by Wirestock/depositphotos